DESIGN ON THE ECOLOGY
ECOLOGICAL CONDITION OF TAITSY SETTLEMENT, GRANGE MIZA IVANOVKA AND GATCHINA'S DISTRICT OF THE LENINGRAD REGION
(our study and practical work on the program "School ecological initiative")
Authors of work: Zavyalov Mikhail (9 form), Scornyakov Mikhail (10 form), Bukhvalov Yuriy (8 form); Secondary school of settlement Taitsy.
Instructor of work: Miroshkina S. M., Dunaeva I. N., Zimina N.V., Krasilnikov Y. A., Rodionov A. A.
(LAUREATES, AWARDED BY FIRST DIPLOMA ON THE INTERNATIONAL YOUTHFUL BIOS OLYMPIC'96)
When we were in summer ecological camp, in June 1995, we have decided to evaluate a ecological condition of a Taitsy Settlement, Miza Ivanovka Gatchina's district of the Leningrad district. The purpose of our work was revealing of the reasons and factors, influencing on ecological condition of the settlement Taitsy, Miza Ivanovka. In our work we have analyzed effect of the conditions of grounds, waters, atmosphere, of the radiating conditions on a person.
1. SETTLEMENT TAITSY.
From a history of the settlement we know the following:
Among manors of the Petersburg due XVIII centuries contemporary allocated Taitsy on beauty architecture of structures.
After Northern war Peter I presented Taitsy to " the father of Russian fleet " - admiral I. M. Golovin. In 1743 the value Berezovskie's underground sources which were on a territory of the manor come to light.
After a death of Golovin Large Taitsy with settlements: Taitsy, Kuznechikha, Saaki, Mogilevka, Nignyaya and Large Pegelevo have become the possession to the daughter of Golovin - Natalya.
Natalya had selling it in 1761 to A. G. Demidov.
Creation of the manor in Large Taitsy began simultaneously with realization in 1774 Taitsy aqueduct from Berezovskie's sources. He should supply with water the Tcarskoe settlement, Sofia, Pavlovsk, Krasnoe settlement. The author of this project and the chief of work was the great engineer of XVIII the century von V. Baur. For self-regulation of a level of a water and for it descent it was necessary to create uniform water system, to connect Berezovskie's sources with Orlovskie one. He makes longer, more depth and wider river Verevka in the manor of A. G. Demidov.
In the present moment, in order to compare Taitsy last and Taitsy now, we have begun with cartography.
The possession of cartographic knowledge permits not only to take the information from cards, but also if necessary to introduce the information on the prepared cartographic basis. To reflect in a card results of ecological measurements, we were learned to identify on a card, to put on it points of supervision and samples pursuant to scale. Thus, cartographic literate and ecological formation are not divided.
2. MAP OF THE TAITSY SETTLMENT WITH OBJECTS PUT ON IT, INFLUENCING ON ENVIRONMENT
№1 - pioneer camp
№2 - household rubbish heap
№3 - warehouse of mineral fertilizers
№4 - geological expedition
№5 - administration of a state farm Taitsy
№6 - joint-stock "Raduga"
№7 - expedition on waters
№8 - industrial rubbish heap
№9 - boiler-house
№10 - joint-stock "Viaduk"
№11 - Orlovskie sources and Demidovsky park
3. ENTERPRISES, PRESENTING REAL THREAT FOR ECOLOGICAL
CONDITION OF TAITSY SETTLEMENT.
The fertilisers stored there lie, as "layer-cake ": NH4NO3 - the explosive substance is stored in fragmentary bags under the break roof, it is mixed with calurea. KCl is mixed with one of manure and PO4. Entering such manure in the ground not only do not enrich by its elements of mineral feed, but and pollute ground, thus does not except and pollution underground waters, which in some places are on a small depth.
So, according to the data of statistical management of St.-Petersburg and Leningrad region 1992, underground water of the Taitsy is polluted of nitrates (117000 m3 in days): it is result of economic activity of the person (illiterate entering N (nitrogen) of fertilisers and wastes of farms).
Beside there is a platform for preparation of solutions toxic chemicals.
The conditions of storage answer the specifications, warehouse is strong by closed and has identification marks. As to a platform, it is only partially concreted and consequently at mixing hit toxic chemicals on a surface of soil is possible. Besides using of activity of the pests and herbicides can result in development of stability at pests, illnesses and dirty plants, and as to result in secondary flare of number and to call undesirable effect on an environment and health of the person. In state farm Taitsy basically unstable pesticides and herbicides (are destroyed quickly) are applied, and in the last years in connection with large prices, their application was sharply reduced, therefore this factor does not present large threat for ecology of a settlement.
Cattle farm is situated in direct affinity with Demidovsky park and Orlovskie sources, and cattle-way to pastures are almost closely suitable to park. Long-term use of this territory has resulted in that on this part of ground adjoining to park, hillock, water have occured and in some places there were some kinds of herb, characteristic for marshes. In some places we can observe the marshy places, we can see the change of one ecological system by the other with action humanity factors. If up to revolution there was the green avenue, which was partially destroyed during the war, to Demidovsky park lengthways Sanatorskaya street, was partially lost because from organization cattle-way, now repeated attempts of schoolchildren to restore this avenue did not finish success, and we think, that the main reason consists in breach ecological system on a given territory of a settlement.
Plants and animals can test large pollution stress, therefore become more vulnerable for another factors of environment (for example parasites, drought).
4. ECOLOGICAL FACTORS.
The ecological factors - are the environmental elements effecting a living organism. They are divided into abiotical, biotical and antropogenic. In a complex of the factors they can be stronger acts that, which is closer to a limit endurance of a living organism.
During our excursion to the industrial-sanitarian laboratory to the labour protection and accident prevention department of PNPI we stated:
Harmful factor - the one which effects on the person, and in certain conditions results in disease or decrease the capacity for work.
By active factors we mean those which can affect person by means of their energy recource. This group of the factors is subdivided on following subgroups:
5. SETTLEMENT MIZA IVANOVKA.
We want to describe ecological condition of the Miza Ivanovka settlement of Gatchina district and part of the Izgora river. The Izgora riverflows along the northern and eastern border of the Miza Ivanovka settlement. To the west of it is the railway (station Pudost). To the south is a small marshy field with dense bushes which then develops into small hills, so named "the American mountain ". The river Paritca flows throught the hills and then into the river Izgora .
Some years ago "the American mountain" was divided ito plots and people began to build cotteges there. At present time they are cultivating the small marshy field, which devides the Miza Ivanovka settlement from the settlement on the hills. This drastically effects the ecological conditions of this territory and the Izgora river, since it increases the flow of wastes of the vital activity (anthropohenic factor).
The "rubbish heap" is expanding. This thought comes when one is walking along the streets of the Miza Ivanovka. Recollecting the history of dust-heaps in this settlement, one can realised that it has always been a serious ecological problem. At first dust-heaps were arranged everywhere. Then containers for a rubbish were delivered to the Miza Ivanovka, and the quantity of dust-heaps had been reduces; but there was a period, when the containers were not removed, and huge heaps of the rubbish arose around them. Some dust-heaps are made on the bank of the Izgora river, and harmful contaminations come into the river with rain.
The same ecological problems exist in each settlement, and if appropriate measures aren't taken, the ecological condition will be even worse.
6. THE IZGORA RIVER, THE TIOPLAYA, THE PARITCA AND KOLPANKA RIVERS.
The Izgora river takes its beginning in the Scvoritsy village. The integrated poultry farm "Scvoritsy" was built in thet Pudost settlemen, situated a little bit down the river dumping into it a huge amount of wastes.
We can trace the influence of these substances on the ecological conditions of the river. They serve a perfect fertiliser and stimulate the growth of water-plants, which results in over growing with water-plants and becoming the territory boggy; the water in the river becomes muddy, many plants, which provide the water with O2 inthe process of photosynthesis, their reducing concentration of the dissolved O2, and can results in death of the most valuable deep-water fishes and their replacement by the fishes, which feed on simple fitoplancton (a shift one ecosystem to another).
Besides this can results in water pollution, in other words its quality is in danger: cells of water-plants block the water purifying filters very quickly and give the water an unpleasant taste.
The waste flows from the near by fields also results in water pollution. Perhaps, the enterprise, located in the building of the former Gatchina mill in the Miza Ivanovka also contibutes to the process of pollution.
Two rivers, the Paritca and the Kolpanka, flows into the river Izgora. These rivers drive a large amount of contaminations into the Izgora a plenty of pollution. Let us trace to the contribution into the process of pollution of each of them.
The river Paritca takes its begining not far fromt Voyscovitsy settlemen and drives into the river Izgora everything that the "Voyscovitsy" poultry farm, the state farm "Reyzino" and other enterprises throw away.
Besides, flow from the fields come into the river Paritca, too acts very many drains from fields.
The Kolpanka river flows from the Kolpankskoe lake. To my mind, the main cause of pollution of this river is the factory named after Roshal, which throws out into it huge amount of comtamination. Long-term experience shows that the absence of public control considerably worsens the ecological situation and makes it uncontrolled.
In communication that in a Leningrad region are radiation - dangerous objects: LAES and PNPI RAS, at failure on whichr the population of the settlements Miza Ivanovka and Taitsy can suffe, we have decided to survey a radiating conditions of our settlements and to offer the rules of behaviour of the inhabitants at failures.
The population should know identification marks of radiating danger. For measurement of a radiating background we have studied various devices in the camp, and for measurement in settlements we have used a device IRD 02 B1.
Our practical measurements of a radiation carried out by dozimeter-radiometer "IRD 02 B1".
There are adaptations for measurement some body size. For example: for measurement of a body weigh it weigh on balance, obtaining rather exact figure.
As there are α-, β-, scales - radiation; how to measure them? What is the density of a flow of particles? We went in the Taitsy and Miza Ivanovka settlements and measured scale - radiation. It appears, for radiation measurements there are various devices. It is the dozimeter-radiometer (IRD 02 B1) among them, which serves for measurement β and scale of radiation. The device permits to measure capacity of a doze on γ-radiation in a range from 0.1 up to 20 mkZw/h (10-2000 mkR/h).
At β- pollution measurement the device defines a flow of β-particles for 1 minute from 1 sm2 surfaces.
Measurement of a radiating background on grange Miza Ivanovka.
From the point of view radiation safety by dangerous objects for the inhabitants settlements Miza Ivanovka in first time are: Scienific nuclear reactor PNPI WWR-I (capacity 18 MWt) and energy block of LAES (4 reactors RBMK by capacity 1000 MWt).
Results of measurements:
|№ of points||disposition of points||number of measurements||Capacity of a doze (mkR/h)|
|2||bridge through Igora||6||26||16||17|
|3||street Gatchinskaya melnitca, 23||6||16||6||13|
|4||street Geleznodorognaya - Kalinina||6||15||8||12|
|5||street Novorucheynaya - Nignyaya||5||15||10||12|
|6||street Kalinina - Krasina||5||20||13||15|
|7||street Rucheynaya - Krasina||5||18||9||14|
|8||street Krasnaya - Lenina||5||17||11||14|
|9||street Kalinina - Krasnaya||5||21||10||14|
Ecological camp in the summer of this year has convincingly proven, that such meetings not only are useful, but also absolute are necessary. On the one hand, on lectures and excursion we have learned much new and our district interesting about ecological problems, get the elementary skills of work with devices, have run in work on a modern computer engineering (have studied work programs: Windows, Microsoft Word, Paintbrush, CuneiForm, Lexicon, Norton Commander, ScanEdit, PaperPort and other), participated in preparation and edition of the collection " Ecology. Safety. Life. " a part 1 and 2. In the first part of our work concerning summer ecological camp we have executed computer imposition and drawings on a computer and assisted in preparation and registration of the second part; were awarded by the diplomas of the first degree in competition "The Green world - by eyes of the children" (computer schedule), introduce of results of which was 8 December
We understand, that it depends on care and labour of our generation, how will be our country and whole world in following years, therefore we investigate ecological problems of our district and we are engaged by their decision in accordance with our opportunities.
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